Editorial Style Guide

Editorial Style Guide

Because stylebooks sometimes vary, this official Loyola University New Orleans Editorial Style Guide outlines style practices specific to Loyola University New Orleans.

Loyola University New Orleans Magazine (LUNOM), Loyola Executive, Loyola Lawyer, and all other official university publications follow university style (primarily taken from Webster’s Standard American Style Manual, Webster’s New World Dictionary, U.S.News & World Report Stylebook, and The Little, Brown Handbook). For style questions not specifically addressed in this style guide, consult The Chicago Manual of Style.

The Associated Press Stylebook is followed for all news releases and Loyola at a Glance.

University Style

a versus an

The choice of the article “a” or “an” depends on the sound with which the word or abbreviation begins. If it begins with a consonant sound, “a” is used. If it begins with a vowel sound, “an” is used.

  • a historic building
  • an honors program
  • a novel idea
  • an innovative program

academic degrees

abbreviations—Use periods as follows:

  • B.A. for bachelor of arts degree
  • J.D. for juris doctor degree
  • LL.M. for master of laws degree
  • M.A. for master of arts degree
  • M.B.A. for master of business administration degree
  • Ph.D. for doctorate degree

capitalization—Lowercase degrees in a body of text.

Mary Smith received a bachelor of science degree in physics from Loyola University New Orleans.

apostrophe versus no apostrophe—Use as follows:

  • master’s degree in sociology OR master of sociology degree
  • bachelor’s degree in secondary education OR bachelor of secondary education degree
    (See also degree programs.)

academic titles

On first reference to an individual with an academic title, use the academic title after the name. Do not refer to him/her as Dr. in subsequent references. Use his/her last name only.

David M. Barnett, Ph.D., is giving the commencement speech this year. Barnett will discuss world peace.

accent marks

See diacritics.

acronyms, college

See college acronyms.

addresses

Spell out and capitalize street, avenue, alley, lane, etc., when using the complete name of the thoroughfare.

  • Fifth Avenue is often heavily congested.
  • Many beautiful homes are on St. Charles Avenue.

Abbreviate compass points in an address, but spell them out when there is no address number.

McGrath’s Bar is located at 2525 S. Carrollton Avenue.

  • Wendy Jones lives on South Carrollton Avenue.

Lowercase and spell out the word “street” when used with more than one street name.

Meet me at the corner of Freret and Calhoun streets at noon.

Do not put a comma between the state and zip code. Follow post office requirements for specific mailings, e.g., business reply envelopes (BRE).

Adjutor Hominum Award

Capitalize the initial letter in all words as it is the formal name of the award.

adviser

Not advisor.

African-American

Always hyphenate.

alumna

One female graduate.

alumnae

More than one female graduate.

alumni

More than one graduate—all males or males and females collectively.

alumnus

One male graduate. Never use alum.

alumni distinctions

As of August 1, 2009, the format for identifying undergraduate Loyola University New Orleans alumni in all printed/online materials and nametags is:

  • Name + Apostrophe + Year of Graduation: John Smith ’65
  • Graduate degrees are listed before the year of graduation.
    James Smith, J.D. ’75
    Jane Brown ’80, M.B.A. ’82
  • In addition, ALL alumni are classified according to the college in which their major is NOW housed:
    College of Business
    College of Humanities and Natural Sciences
    College of Law
    College of Music and Fine Arts
    College of Social Sciences

apostrophe

Make certain a true apostrophe (’) is used and not a foot mark ('). For the possessive form of words that end in “s,” use the apostrophe after the “s.”

  • The Hardy boys’ dog is in our yard.
  • Mary is Jesus’ mother.

avenue

See addresses.

baccalaureate

Lowercase.

Baccalaureate Mass

Uppercase.

Bar/bar

For specific state associations capitalize both state and Bar. Otherwise lower case.

  • The Louisiana State Bar association
  • She is a member of the bar.
  • The bar association meets every Tuesday.

BEGGARS fraternity

Capitalize all letters.

Benefactors Dinner

Do not use an apostrophe after the s. This dinner is for benefactors; therefore, usage of the s does not imply possession.

book titles

Capitalize the initial letter of each word (except articles and conjunctions if three letters or less) and italicize.

board members

Lowercase.

Board of Trustees

Uppercase when referring to a specific board.

  • The Board of Trustees will be meeting downstairs this afternoon.
  • The board will be meeting downstairs this afternoon.

Broadway Activities Center

Initial capital letters as it is the proper name of the building.

Broadway campus

Uppercase Broadway only because it is the name of the street.

bullets

Use bullets of some sort when listing items. Do not use an asterisk (*) or a hyphen.

bylaws

Not by-laws.

capitalization

In publications, be careful not to use capitalization in excess. When used for emphasis, too many capitalizations can have the same effect as having none.

In more formal, non-publication documents (e.g., honorary degree citations) and in The Mission, Values, and Goals of Loyola University New Orleans exceptions are allowed.

capitalization of hyphenated compound words—Capitalize only the first letter, unless the second element of the compound is a proper noun.

  • Mary Jackson lives on Thirty-second Street.
  • I must return Life in Post-Victorian England to the library today.
  • Jack is taking classes through the Off-campus Learning Program.

century

hyphenation—When the word “century” is used as a noun with a preceding numeric designation, no hyphen is used. When the word “century” is used as an adjective, a hyphen is used.

  • Hairstyles in Europe became larger as the 16th century progressed.
  • Professor Jenkins finds 20th-century fiction to be the most interesting.

numerals vs. spelling out

Spell out those less than 10. Lowercase unless in a title or the first word of a sentence. For those over 10, it is correct either to use numerals or to spell out the century. Do not use numerals if the word is first in a sentence.

  • I find eighteenth-century architecture inspiring.
  • I find 18th-century architecture inspiring.
  • Eighteenth-century furniture fills her house.

CEO

Spell out chief executive officer on first reference, then use CEO (with no periods) on further references.

chair

Use chair instead of chairman, chairwoman, or chairperson, unless specifically requested otherwise by the individual holding the position.

church

Capitalize initial letter only when following proper name. Lowercase in other instances.

  • Holy Name of Jesus Church is on St. Charles Avenue.
  • The church was built in 1805.

city

Capitalize initial letter only when part of the city’s name. Lowercase in other instances.

  • Fordham University is located in New York City.
  • The city was presented with a grant for a new zoo.
  • The city of New Orleans is filled with history.

city, country

When in text, a comma should follow both the city and country.

While on vacation in London, England, I attended a banquet at Buckingham Palace.

city, state

When used in text, a comma should follow both the city and state.

Jane Beck, a dentist from Jackson, Mississippi, opened her new office on St. Charles Avenue.

Class of…

The Class of 1950 will be celebrating its golden anniversary this year.

The 1950 class will be celebrating its golden anniversary this year.

co-chair

Hyphenate the word. In instances where the word should be capitalized—at the beginning of a sentence or preceding the proper name of the co-chair—only the first “c” is capitalized.

  • Ben Hoffman is a co-chair of the committee.
  • Co-chair Ben Hoffman will be speaking at today’s committee meeting.
  • Today’s speaker will be Co-chair Ben Hoffman.

college acronyms

On first reference, spell out the name. On subsequent references, use the acronym. When using acronyms, do not use periods unless the school officially uses them.

  • LSU
  • SMU

college names

The official or formal names of colleges should be capitalized.

Shortened or informal versions should be lowercase except for clarity. The formal name should be used in most instances on first reference.

  • College of Business
  • College of Humanities and Natural Sciences
  • College of Law, but law school (not Law School)
  • College of Music and Fine Arts
  • College of Social Sciences

Pick up the papers from Humanities (clarity).

colon

Use only one space after a colon.

The following is a list of students and the color of the flag each student will carry tonight in the parade: Benny—blue, Sarah—green, Rachel—yellow, Jack—red.

commas between clauses

Use a comma plus a conjunction between two independent clauses.

Professor Brown testified before Congress on the dangers of smoking, and it is agreed he presented a strong case.

The following sentence is NOT composed of two independent clauses and SHOULD NOT include a comma. Sentences such as this commonly, and incorrectly, include a comma before and. This mistake should be avoided.

The following sentence is correct:

Professor Brown testified before Congress on the dangers of smoking and was invited to lecture at Oxford on the same subject.

commas in a series

Use a comma between all items in a series, including before and for clarity. Exception: news releases and Loyola at a Glance follow AP style which excludes the comma before “and.”

  • red, white, and blue
  • red with black stripes, white with orange circles, and blue with green spots
  • red, white, purple, green, and gold

commencement

Lowercase within text.

committee

When the entire official name of the committee is used, the first letter of each word should be capitalized. Otherwise, it should all be in lowercase letters.

  • Carol Jackson is a member of the Library Visiting Committee.
  • Carol Jackson is a member of the library committee.

Common Curriculum

Uppercase.

course names

Uppercase the names of courses because they are, in effect, titles. Lowercase the names of subjects unless they are proper nouns or adjectives.

  • Jesse has enrolled in Introduction to Philosophy.
  • U.S. History to 1865 was my favorite course this semester.
  • Sandy has been studying music, philosophy, accounting, and history at Loyola University.
  • Kate has chosen all English and French courses as her electives.

coursework

One word.

CPA

CPA is used without periods. “Certified public accountant” should be lowercase when used in a sentence, but not spelled out after someone’s name:

John Smith is a certified public accountant.
John Smith, CPA, is working with us.

dashes

en dash—An en dash is approximately the width of a capital N and surrounded by a space on both sides. It is used between words indicating a duration and in compound adjectives when one of the elements is made of two words or two hyphenated words. (In Word, click Insert, then Symbol, then Special Characters.)

  • January 26 – March 3
  • 7:30 – 9:30 p.m.
  • 8 – 10 years of age
  • Minneapolis – St. Paul
  • white-collar – blue-collar contrast

em dash—An em dash is approximately the width of a capital M and has no space on either side. It is used in substitution of a colon or parenthesis, or in indicating an abrupt change in thought, or in a space where a period is too strong or a comma too weak. An em dash is also used before an author’s or composer’s name at the end of a quotation. (In Word, click Insert, then Symbol, then Special Characters.)

  • "Who steals my purse steals trash." —Shakespeare
  • We will fly to Paris in June—if I get a raise.

dates

Spell out dates (months and days of the week) except in LUNOM Wolftracks or in calendars with limited space.

days of the week with date

Spell out. Use a comma after the day of the week and the date with or without the year following.

  • We will meet on Tuesday, March 11, to discuss next week’s fundraising event.
  • We will meet on March 11 to discuss...
  • We will meet on Tuesday to discuss…
  • We met on March 11, 2008, to...

decades—numeric

Do not use apostrophes when all four digits are used.

  • 1930s
  • the '30s

degree distinctions

See alumni distinctions.

degree programs

Lowercase.

  • Roger Alexander is working towards his master’s degree in architecture.
  • Roger Alexander received a master of architecture degree from the University of Virginia.

(See also academic degrees.)

departments

Lowercase when used informally; uppercase when used formally or when needed for clarity.
NOTE: Official department name is listed as Department of Xxx; informal name is xxx department.

  • Jane is now working in the Department of History (formal).
  • Jane is now working in the history department (informal).
  • I am going over to History to see my professor (clarity).
  • The Department of Sociology (formal) is located on the fifth floor.
  • The sociology department (informal) is located on the fifth floor.
  • Pick up the papers from Sociology (clarity).

diacritics

Do not use an apostrophe or foot mark as an accent. Use the correct accents. In Word, click Insert, then Symbol, then select the symbol you want to use.

ellipsis

Use the ellipsis (…) rather than typing three periods in a row. This gives you evenly spaced periods that cannot be separated if they fall at the end of a line. Do not include a space before or after the ellipse. Follow with a period at the end of sentences.

e-mail

Single, hyphenated word. Lowercase when used in text.

emphasis

Do not use double emphasis. A word that is bold or italicized will stand out. It need not be bold, italicized, and underlined to be seen.

extension

See telephone extension.

faculty

Use with a singular verb.

  • The faculty numbers 200.
  • The faculty is meeting today.
  • The faculty members are meeting today.

fall semester

Lowercase.

fax

Lowercase.

follow up/follow-up

Single, hyphenated word when used as a noun or adjective. Two, separate words when used as a verb transitive or verb intransitive.

  • I must go to the doctor for a follow-up examination.
  • This examination is a follow-up to my knee surgery.
  • Make sure you follow up that lead I gave you for the new job.

freshman/freshmen

When used as an adjective,“ freshman” means of or for first-year students and the singular is used.

  • freshman English course
  • freshman courses
  • courses for freshmen

fundraiser, fundraising

One word in all instances.

gender reference

Avoid sexist or sex-specific language whenever possible.

greater

Lowercase when not part of a proper name (i.e., greater New Orleans)

Holy Name of Jesus Church

This is the formal name of Holy Name and should be used on first reference and formal documents.

home page

honorable, the

Abbreviate Hon. When this description is used before an individual’s name, precede it with the word “the” because, unlike with Mr. and Mrs., the abbreviation “Hon.” represents an adjective, not a noun.

The Hon. Adrian G. Duplantier

horseshoe

When referring to the parking area in front of Marquette Hall, lowercase.

hyphen

A hyphen is used strictly for hyphenating words or line breaks. (See dashes.)

Internet

Capitalize.

Intranet

Capitalize.

italics

Italicize words instead of underlining them.

law library

Lowercase.

library

Lowercase.

Loyola library

Loyola University New Orleans

The name of the university is Loyola University New Orleans—no commas are used. This must be used on first reference. In subsequent references, it may be shortened to Loyola or Loyola University.

magazine titles

Capitalize the initial letters of each word (except articles and conjunctions of three letters or less) and italicize. Also capitalize and italicize acronyms of magazines.

  • Loyola University New Orleans Magazine
  • LUNOM

majors

Lowercase.

  • chemistry major
  • music major
  • mass communication major

main campus

Lowercase.

main library

Lowercase.

The Maroon

Capitalize the initial letters in each word and italicize. “The” is capitalized because it is part of the name of the newspaper.

We have many fine young journalists working on The Maroon.

Mass

Always uppercase.

masterclass

One word.

MBA/M.B.A.

Do not use periods when referring to the general program. Only use periods when listing a degree.

  • The MBA Program at Loyola is outstanding.
  • John Smith, M.B.A. ’75 is a business alumnus.

midnight

Do not precede with 12. Midnight is 12 a.m.

money

When including a numeric monetary amount in a body of text, include decimal numbers only if the decimal amount is not .00. Also, if the amount is above $999, use a comma for clarification.

  • Jack’s stereo cost $4,863.
  • Jack’s monthly mortgage payments will be $1,364.75.

Monroe Library

Abbreviated name of the J. Edgar and Louise S. Monroe Library.

month and year

When used without referring to a specific date of the month, no comma is needed.

  • Bob Harvey began working for the company in June 1993.
  • Bob Harvey began working for the company on June 15, 1993.

newspaper titles

Capitalize and italicize, including “the,” when it is included in the name on the masthead.

  • Barbara reads The Times-Picayune from cover to cover every morning.
  • Jack works for the Los Angeles Times.

non-credit

Hyphenate.

nondiscrimination

Do not hyphenate.

nonprofit

Do not hyphenate.

noon

Do not precede with 12. Noon is 12 p.m.

numbers

in text—Spell out numbers from one through nine. Use numerals for those 10 or larger.
plural—fours, fives, 100s

offices

Lowercase when used informally; uppercase when used formally or when needed for clarity.
NOTE: Official office name is listed as Office of Xxx; informal name is xxx office.

  • You must register in the Office of Student Records (formal).
  • You must register in the student records office (informal).
  • You must register in Student Records (clarity).
  • The Office of Marketing and Communications (formal) is located on the first floor.
  • The marketing and communications office (informal) is located on the first floor.
  • Bring the proof back to Marketing and Communications (clarity).

online

Both “online” and “on-line” are commonly used. However, university style follows “online” for consistency.

orphans

See widows and orphans.
over/more than.

Use more than when referring to a quantity; use over when talking about distance or direction.

* The university has more than 100 student organizations.
* The umbrella is over our heads.

percent

Spell out when used in text. Use the % symbol when included in a chart.
phone numbers.

Put the area code in parenthesis, and use hyphens instead of periods. (504) 861-5757
programs, academic.

Capitalize the names of formal academic programs. Lowercase generic names of academic programs.

* Off-campus Learning Program
* Honors Program
* graduate program
* Writing Across the Curriculum
* study abroad program

pre-modern

Hyphenate.

president

Lowercase unless it immediately precedes the name of the individual who holds the position.

* The president called an emergency meeting for this afternoon.
* When Mary toured the White House, President Obama was not in
residence.

pope

Lowercase unless it immediately precedes the name of the individual who holds the position.

* The pope will be visiting the United States next month.
* The first Polish pope was Pope John Paul II.

postmodern

Do not hyphenate.

question mark

with bracket, dash, parenthesis, quotation marks—The question mark is placed inside a closing bracket, dash, parenthesis, or pair of quotation marks when it punctuates only the material enclosed by that mark and not the sentence as a whole. It is placed outside that mark when it punctuates the entire sentence.

  • What did Andrew Jackson mean when he called the project “a fiasco from the start”?
  • "She thought about it for a moment," Alice continued, "and she said, 'Can you guarantee this will work?' "

quotations

general—Make certain that true quotation marks are used (“, ”, ‘, ’) and not inch (") and foot (') marks.

running—If a full paragraph of quoted material is followed by a paragraph continuing the quotation, do not put closed quotation marks at the end of the first paragraph. Do, however, put open quotation marks at the start of the second paragraph. Continue in this fashion for any succeeding paragraphs, using closed quotation marks only at the end of the quoted material.

with other punctuation—When at the end of a quoted phrase or sentence, commas and periods are included inside quotation marks; colons and semicolons are outside quotation marks.

with question mark—A question mark is placed inside quotation marks when it punctuates only the material enclosed and not the sentence as a whole. It is placed outside when it punctuates the entire sentence.
religious titles.

On first reference to an individual with a religious title, include the religious title and order identification. Do not refer to him/her as Fr., Father, Rev., Sr., or Sister in subsequent references.; use his/her last name only.

  • The Rev. John P. Smith, S.J., will….Smith said....
  • Sr. Mary Jane Jones, O.P., spoke….Jones researches….

reverend, the

Abbreviate “the Rev.” When this description is used before an individual’s name, precede it with the word “the” because, unlike with Mr. and Mrs., the abbreviation “Rev.” represents an adjective, not a noun.

room numbers

Use numerals and capitalize room when used with numerals.

Mrs. Beardsley’s class is held in Room 211.

rooms—specially designated

Capitalize the names of specially designated rooms.

  • Blue Room
  • Oval Office
  • Senior Common Room

Roussel Hall

Refer to the hall as Louis J. Roussel Performance Hall on first reference. Roussel Hall is fine for subsequent references and in calendars where space is limited.

R.S.V.P.

Répondez s’il vous plaît (reply, if you please). Ok to abbreviate.

St. Mary’s Hall

The building which houses the Department of Visual Arts.

salutations—husband and wife

When addressing a husband and wife in the salutation of a letter, place her name before his.

Dear Nancy and Joe,

seasons

Lowercase if they simply declare the time of the year; capitalize only if they are personified—as in some poetry.

  • Janet will begin classes in the fall semester.
  • The sweet breath of Spring filled the air.
  • The winter formal will be held at the Fairmont.
  • The book will be published this spring.

South

Capitalize when speaking of a specific region. Lowercase when speaking of direction.

  • I love to spend my vacations in the South.
  • My hometown is just south of Chicago.

space between initials

Do not use a space between initials. Do add a comma before and after initials of religious and professional societies and the like when included in text.

  • The Rev. John P. Smith, S.J., will speak at the luncheon today.
  • The special guest at tonight’s dinner will be D.J. Jefferson.

space between sentences

Use only one space. Typewriters are monospaced and, therefore, two spaces are necessary to visually separate sentences. Typeset copy (computer-generated) is proportional, making the extra space unnecessary and the copy more difficult to read.

sports complex

Use the official name “University Sports Complex” on first reference and “sports complex” in subsequent references.

state of Louisiana

Do not capitalize the initial letter in state.

states

city and state or state alone in a body of text—Spell out entire name.

  • Loyola University New Orleans is located in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Many Loyola alumni live in Florida.

full address set alone—Use U.S. postal service abbreviations.

Loyola University New Orleans
6363 St. Charles Avenue
New Orleans, LA 70118

full address used in body copy—Use Associated Press style with postal abbreviations.

Loyola University New Orleans is located at 6363 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70118.

in narrative—Especially in Wolftracks, LUNOM uses non-postal abbreviations.

in limited space such as calendars—Use non-postal abbreviations.
La., Fla., Minn.

telephone extension

Abbreviate the word “extension” with “ext.” not “x.”

theater

The building or area of a building where performances are held.

  • Marquette Theater
  • Lower Depths Theater

theatre

The art or function of theatre.

She studied theatre while at Loyola.

timeline

One word.

time

For news releases, invitations, calendars, and other listings with times, use numerals with colon to separate hours from minutes. Lowercase and use periods with a.m./p.m. (For times on the hour, use neither colon nor zeroes.) Within body copy of stories in newsletters, magazines, and brochures, spell out the time. Refer to etiquette books for very formal invitations.

Loyola University New Orleans Magazine—The performance is scheduled for eight o’clock.
news releases—The performance is at 8 p.m. (Lowercase p.m. and a.m. with periods and no zeros.)

The Times-Picayune

Italicize and hyphenate.

titles—academic

See academic titles.

titles—personal for women

According to etiquette books, use:

  • Ms.—when using her first name;
  • Mrs.—when using her husband’s first name;
  • Ms. or Mrs.—if she is divorced and using her first name;
  • Mrs.—if widowed and using his first name.

titles—professional

Confine capitalization to formal titles used directly before an individual’s name. Lowercase and spell out titles when they are not used with an individual’s name.

  • The president issued a statement this morning on the matter we discussed yesterday.
  • The pope gave his blessing.

Titles used immediately before an individual’s name are capitalized.

University President John P. Smith, S.J., will be the guest of honor at tomorrow’s luncheon.

The opening remarks will be given by Professor Fran Michaels.

Titles used after an individual’s name are lowercase, including the name of the department, office, or college.

  • Martin Farrell, director of constituent relations, will be leaving the company next month.
  • Bill Bishop, vice president for institutional advancement, will be attending the convention.
  • Vice President for Institutional Advancement Bill Bishop will be attending the convention.

Names and titles in a listing not in paragraph form are capitalized.

Campus Beautification Committee: Jack McInnes, Director of Management Services Kathleen Howell, Vice President for Financial Planning

titles—religious

See religious titles.

titles—works

books; movies; plays; operas, symphonies, and other major musical works; newspapers; and magazines should be italicized.

songs; television shows; and magazine and newspaper articles should be set in quotation marks.
book chapters should be merely capitalized.

trustee

Lowercase.

underlining

Do not underline words. Italicize instead, unless font library does not offer italics. See italics.

university

In publications, unless it is used with the word “Loyola”, it is always lowercase—even when referring to Loyola University specifically. Possible exceptions are formal proposals and official documents such as the goals statement and honorary degree citations.

  • Loyola University always strives for excellence.
  • The university promotes this goal in every college and department.

“University” is also lowercase in multiple listings.

Fred is an alumnus of both Loyola and Tulane universities.

university library

Lowercase.

University President

Uppercase when it immediately precedes the name of the individual who holds the position.

University President Kevin Wm. Wildes, S.J. will attend the meeting.

University Sports Complex

Use the official name on first reference and “sports complex” in subsequent references.
Uptown. Capitalize the initial letter because it is a specific region of New Orleans.
vice president. Do not hyphenate.

voicemail

One word.

web links

Do not use a period when the web link ends a paragraph.

For more information, visit www.loyno.edu

Do not include an initial www in a Loyola web link that also includes a subdomain (for example, academicaffairs.loyno.edu, giving.loyno.edu, law.loyno.edu,) in the address. It is extraneous.

Incorrect: To give now, visit www.giving.loyno.edu

Correct: To give now, visit giving.loyno.edu

web page

Two words.

website

One word.

well-known

Hyphenate when used as an adjective. No hyphen when used as an adverb.

  • The well-known dancer performed. (compound adjective—hyphenate)
  • The dancer was well known. (adverb—no hyphen)

widows and orphans

Avoid widows and orphans.

A widow occurs when a paragraph ends leaving fewer than seven characters on the last line or when the first line of a paragraph appears as the last line of a column.

An orphan occurs when the last line of a paragraph falls as the first line of a column.

All of these can be avoided by rewriting the copy or adjusting the line or column length—changing tracking, leading, or kerning.

years—abbreviation

Abbreviated, two-digit, numeric years are preceded by an apostrophe (’), not a single open quote (‘).

  • Class of ’78
  • The Summer of ’42

A span of years written in numeric years and including the century contains no apostrophe.

  • 1975 – 82
  • 1757 – 64